Deprecated: Function set_magic_quotes_runtime() is deprecated in /home/numism/public_html/coins/textpattern/lib/txplib_db.php on line 14
Transylvanian coins - monede Transilvania

Menu

Catalog: IOANNES I ZAPOLYA 1538-1540

IOANNES I (ZAPOLYA) - 1538-1540 - I JANOS (ZAPOLYA)

The Mohacs battle was followed by anarchy in Transylvania, which ended only in 1541, after a decade and a half on internal fights. At November 10, 1526, Ioannes Zapolya was crowned king of Hungary at Alba Regala, but a month later, the party of magnates elects Ferdinand of Habsburg as king.
The two kings start a long fight which will bring only grief to Transylvania, who’s natural riches brought the attention of Ferdinand I in a moment when the finances of Wiena was in a poor shape. Ferdinand understood that he cannot bring Hungary under his rule until he brakes Zapolya’s centre of resistance, which was Transylvania.
By conquering Transylvania, he would have win an excellent base to carry the war against the turks. For this, and for economical and political reasons, from 1527 Transylvania became the object of the Habsburg expansionist politics.
In these conditions, a long war started in 1528 between Ferdinand and those loyal to Zapolya. As the strength of both parties was insufficient to gain the decisive victory on the battle fields, and both Ferdinand and Zapolya was also engaged in other war theatres (Upper Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia), they seek help at the ruler of Moldavia, Petru Rares.
From this moment will have an important role in the events from Transylvania. As he see this as a good opportunity to enlarge his Transylvanian possessions, he decided to support Zapolya. The moldavian armies recorded important victory’s over the forces loyal to Ferdinand, and Zapolya’s army occupied Cluj Napoca (Kolozsvar), Turda, (Torda), Alba Iulia (Gyulafehervar), Sebes (Szasz-szebes), Brasov (Brasso), Sighisoara (Segesvar) and Medias (Medgyes).
In the meantime Ferdinand was holding talks with Zapolya, and in 4 april 1535 he signs a treaty even with Petru Rares, who after 1534 begins to support the Habsburg emperor. In the end, Ferdinand didn’t needed Rares’ help, as the Habsburg signed the peace with Zapolya at Oradea (Nagyvarad) in 1538. By the treaty signed at Oardea, Zapolya was to rule Transylvania as long as he’ll live.

Dupa lupta de la Mohacs a inceput si pentru Transilvania o perioada de anarhie, care a luat sfarsit abia in anul 1541, dupa un deceniu si jumatate de lupte interne. La 10 noiembrie 1526, Ioan Zapolya a fost incoronat ca rege al Ungariei la Alba Regala, dar, o luna mai tarziu, partida magnatilor il alege rege pe Ferdinand de Habsburg.
Intre cei doi regi incepe o indelungata lupta, care avea sa aduca multe nenorociri asupa Transilvaniei, a caror bogatii naturale au atras atentia lui Ferdinand I, intr-un moment cand situatia finantelor Curtii de la Viena era destul de grea.
Ferdinand a inteles ca nu-si poate asigura dominatia asupra intregii Ungarii decat supunand centrul de rezistenta al lui Ioan Zapolya, care era Transilvania. Prin cucerirea acestui principat, Ferdinand I ar fi dobandit si o baza mai buna pnentru purtarea luptelor impotriva turcilor. Din aceste motive economice si politice, inca din 1527 Transilvania a intrat in obiectivul politicii expansioniste habsburgice.
In aceste conditii a inceput in Transilvania, inca din 1528 un lung razboi intre partizanii lui Ferdinand si cei al lui Zapolya.
Cum atat fortele partizanilor lui Ferdinand, cat si cele ale lui Zapolya erau insuficiente pentru a putea obtine singure decizia pe teatrul de lupta transilvanean, iar Ferdinand si Zapolya, angajati pe alte fronturi (Ungaria superioara, Croatia si Slovenia), nu puteau interveni ei insisi, fiecare din cei doi adversari a cautat sa-si asigure dominatia asupra Transilvaniei solicitand ajutorul domnului Moldovei, Petru Rares.
Din acest moment domnul Moldovei joaca rolul hotaritor in desfasurarea evenimentelor din Transilvania, Petru Rares vazand asta totodata un bun prilej pentru a-si spori posesiunile din Transilvania, si de a-si spori influenta asupra provinciei.
Domnul Moldovei a decis sa intervina de partea lui Zapolya, iar armatele moldpvenesti au obtinut victorii importante, nimicind fortele principale ale partizanilor lui Ferdinand. Partizanii lui Zapolya, incurajati de victoriile lui Petru Rares, au trecut la actiuni energice ocupand Clujul, Turda, Alba Iulia, Sebesul, Brasovul, Sighisoara si Mediasul.
Intre timp Ferdinand I continua sa duca tratative cu Zapolya, iar in 4 aprilie 1535 semneaza un act chiar cu Petru Rares, care dupa 1534 a inceput sa se apropie de Ferdinand, dar pana la urma nu l-a mai putut ajuta si ca urmare cei doi combatanti semneaza pacea de la Oradea in 1538.
Pacea a fost ratificata de Zapolya la 24 februarie 1538 si ceva mai tarziu si de Ferdinand I si Carol Quintul. Potrivit pacii de la Oradea problema Transilvaniei se rezolva in favoarea lui Zapolya, care urmeaza s-o stapaneasca cat va trai.

He minted only gold coins at Klausenburg and Hermannstadt
A batut numai monede de aur la Cluj Napoca si Sibiu:

1 ducat 1538
1 ducat 1539
10 ducat 1540
6 ducat 1540
1 ducat 1540


Feeds